The prevalence of seizures and epilepsy and the occurrence of other brain malformations or structural abnormalities were examined in 81 children with meningomyelocele followed at the multidisciplinary Children’s Clinics for Rehabilitative Services, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ. Seventeen (21%) had seizures during follow-up ranging from 1.3 to 16 years. Fourteen (17%) had epilepsy and 5 had seizures controlled by anticonvulsant drugs. CNS pathology in addition to the shunted hydrocephalus included encephalomalacia in 7, cerebral malformations in 2, and calcifications in 1. 
COMMENT. Although epilepsy in children with meningomyelocele occurs mainly in those with shunted hydrocephalus, structural cerebral abnormalities other than the shunt may be important causes.