Aneurysms of major cerebral arteries in two children, aged 11 and 12 years, infected with human immunodeficiency virus from blood transfusions are reported from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, and Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC. The incidence among 250 children treated and monitored with MRI was 0.8 percent. The aneurysms developed and progressed during therapy and follow-up but were asymptomatic. The role of HIV infection in these lesions was undetermined. 
COMMENT. CNS involvement in children with HIV infection is common and is frequently manifested with cognitive dysfunction or regression of developmental milestones. Calcifications in the basal ganglia and frontal lobes, white matter changes, and cerebral atrophy are the usual MRI findings. Cerebrovascular disease is an uncommon but potentially hazardous complication. (See Ped Neur Briefs Aug 1991; 5: 57-58, for further discussion of CNS involvement in HIV infection).
A recent neuropsychologic study of HIV-infected children with hemophilia at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, suggested an overall trend toward lower motor, attentional, memory, and sensory-perceptual functioning. When the results were contrasted to those in a control group of children who also had hemophilia, no significant differences were apparent. The early, subtle psychological deficits could not be attributed solely to CNS effects of HIV infection.