Researchers at University of Washington, Seattle, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA conducted a prospective cohort study of the prevalence of headache 3 and 12 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children ages 5 to 17 years. Follow-up interviews with parents or adolescents found the prevalence of headache 3 months after injury was significantly higher after mild TBI than in controls after arm injury overall (43% vs 26%), in adolescents, and in girls. It was also higher after moderate/severe TBI in younger children. At 12 months after injury, TBI was not associated with a significantly increased frequency of headaches, but girls with mild TBI reported serious headache more often than controls. 
COMMENT. Girls and adolescents are at highest risk of headache in the months after mild TBI. Younger children also suffer long-term headache after moderate/severe TBI. Posttraumatic headache after mild TBI shares similarities with migraine and tension-type headache. Migraine headache in children may be precipitated by head trauma . Headache after hospitalization for closed head injury in children followed for 6 years did not appear to be accident related . Several investigators allude to the onset of migraine following mild TBI.