The relation between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years was investigated in 156 very preterm children born at the Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Auatralia, prior to 30 weeks gestation or weighing <1250g. Very preterm children who perseverated on the working memory task had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes than controls with intact working memory. [1]

COMMENT. Children born preterm have smaller hippocampal volumes that correlate with working memory deficits measured at 2 years of age. Further research will determine the longterm effect of altered hippocampal volumes on cognitive function of premature infants.