The relation between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years was investigated in 156 very preterm children born at the Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Auatralia, prior to 30 weeks gestation or weighing <1250g. Very preterm children who perseverated on the working memory task had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes than controls with intact working memory. 
COMMENT. Children born preterm have smaller hippocampal volumes that correlate with working memory deficits measured at 2 years of age. Further research will determine the longterm effect of altered hippocampal volumes on cognitive function of premature infants.