Medically intractable musicogenic epilepsy in 3 adults, with onset at age 5 years in 2 and 18 years in 1, was investigated with ictal magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and presurgical intracranial EEG monitoring, at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Seizures were precipitated by various forms of music, popular rhythms, church hymns, and by playing an electric keyboard. Auras consisted of a tune heard in the head, unpleasant abdominal sensation, and an odor. Seizures were localized to various temporal regions, right lateral, right mesial, and independently in both mesial temporal lobes. Two patients with unilateral ictal foci who underwent surgery are seizure free. 
COMMENT. Musicogenic epilepsy is a heterogeneous syndrome arising from various temporal lobe foci. Resective surgery should be considered for patients with unilateral ictal localization. The first reports of musicogenic epilepsy are usually ascribed to Macdonald Critchley  cited in , although earlier references, notably one involving Berlioz, are mentioned by Lennox WG. . Adults appear to be affected more frequently than children.