Five left temporal lobectomy school-aged children demonstrated significant language-related cognitive declines on post-operative neuropsychological testing at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA. Deficits involved verbal IQ, verbal learning, naming, and reading comprehension. They were clinically evident in 4 of the 5 patients, leading to impaired school performance. They were not identified by IQ testing alone. Three right temporal lobectomy patients showed no cognitive impairment after surgery. 
COMMENT. Preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological testing is recommended in children undergoing temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Left temporal lobectomy may be complicated by language-related cognitive declines.