Factors associated with migraine and nonmigrainous headache in a group of 3580 children aged 8-9 years were evaluated by mail questionnaire at the Turku University, Finland. Migraine was diagnosed in 95 (2.7%) and nonmigrainous headache in 977 (27%). Children with migraine at 8 - 9 years had headaches by 5 years of age in 34%. Reports of bullying, stress at school, and poor peer relationships occurred more frequently in children with migraine and other headaches than in a group of controls without headache. Stress in school was strongest among girls with migraine, despite the absence of learning difficulties. Boys with migraine were particularly plagued by poor peer relationships. 
COMMENT. Bullying, stress, and problems in relating to other children at school are associated with migraine and nonmigrainous headaches in children. Girls are particularly affected by stress at school whereas boys have more trouble with peer relationships. In this study, parents of children with migraine had a lower level of education than parents of children without migraine. Psychosocial intervention and relaxation/biofeedback training are important in treatment. Biofeedback treatment of migraine is reviewed in PPN III, 1997;p191-194.