Neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) due to hypoxic encephalopathy is reported in 6 cases and 28 pediatric cases in the literature are reviewed from the Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. The ages ranged from infancy to 18 years (mean 7 years), and the interval from the hypoxia to the onset of DI was a mean of 4 days. Two neonates survived but had developmental delay. The remaining 26 patients died. DI is a sign of severe brain damage, and this potential complication should be suspected in patients with polyuria and dehydration following hypoxic encephalopathy. 
COMMENT. Neurogenic diabetes insipidus may be caused by head trauma, meningitis, encephalitis, a complication of brain surgery, in addition to hypoxia. Fluid intake and output, plasma sodium, and urine specific gravity should be monitored in children following hypoxic/ischemic insults or in other critically ill brain injured patients.